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鋼結構廠房的消防排煙風機設計概述

作者:玻璃鋼風機 來源:yuxiatg.com 發表時間:2014-07-25 瀏覽:次  

 SUIZHUWOGUOJINGJIJIANSHEDEXUNMENGFAZHAN,QIYESHENGCHANCANGCHUYONGFANGRIQUDAXINGHUA,ERGANGJIEGOUGUJIAJIANZAODECHANGFANG,YIQIANGDUGAO、ZIZHONGQING、KUADUDA、DIAOZHUANGSHIGONGFANGBIANHEJIANSHESHIJIANDUANDENGYOUDIANZHENGYUELAIYUEBEIGUANGDACHANGJIASUOCAIYONG。GANGJIEGOUCHANGFANGJUYOUNAIHUOXINGNENGDIDERUODIAN,ZAIWEIJINXINGFANGHUOCHULIDEQINGKUANGXIA,QIBENSHENSUIRANBUHUIQIHUORANSHAO,DANHUOZAISHI,QIANGDUHUIXUNSUXIAJIANG,YIBANJIEGOUWENDUDADAO350℃、500℃、600℃SHI,QIANGDUFENBIEXIAJIANG1/3、1/2、2/3.LILUNJISUANXIANSHI,ZAIQUANFUHEQINGKUANGXIA,GANGJIEGOUSHIQUJINGTAIPINGHENGWENDINGXINGDELINJIEWENDUWEI500℃ZUOYOU,ERYIBANHUOCHANGWENDUDADAO800~1000℃,ZAIZHEYANGDEHUOCHANGWENDUXIA,LUOLUDEGANGJIEGOUYIBANZAI15minZUOYOU,JIUHUICHUXIANSUXINGBIANXING,CHANSHENGJUBUSUNHUAI,ZAOCHENGGANGJIEGOUZHENGTIDAOTASHIXIAO。RU:1992NIAN5YUEWUXIXINGYEYOUXIANGONGSIQUANGANGJIEGOUZHANDI1000PINGFANGMICHANGFANGFASHENGTEDAHUOZAI,JIANGZHENGGECHANGFANGSHAODEZHILIPOSUI;1992NIAN6YUESHANGHAILIANHEMAOFANGCHANGLIANGCENGQUANGANGJIEGOUCHANGFANG5400PINGFANGMI,YOUYUSHEBEIYOUXIANGXINGCHENGBAORANQITIFASHENGHUOZAI,ZHENGGECHANGFANGSHAOHUI;1993NIAN11YUEANHUIJIATONGLUNTAIYOUXIANGONGSIDEDANCENGQUANGANGJIEGOUCHANGFANG,JIANZHUMIANJI58752PINGFANGMI,YOUYURENWEIZONGHUO,DAOZHIZHEGECHANGFANGGANGJIEGOUQUANBUBEIPOHUAI;2003NIAN2YUE5RISICHUANMIANYANGSANJIAOSHENGHUOYONGZHIZHIZAOYOUXIANGONGSICHENGPIN2HAOCANGKUYINFANGHUOFASHENGHUOZAI,GANGWUJIAJIANZHUQUANBUSHAOHUI。ZHELEIJIANZHUHUANCUNZAIKONGJIANDA,HUOSHIMANYANKUAI,SHEBEI、RENYUANMIJI,SHUSANKUNNANDENGTEDIAN,YIDANFASHENGHUOZAI,CHANGYONGDEZIDONGXIAOFANGSHESHIHENNANFAHUIYUQIZUOYONG。RENYUANSHUSANHEMIEHUOJIUYUANNANDUJIAODA,YOUZAOCHENGQUNSIQUNSHANGDEQIANZAIWEIXIAN。ZAIXIANXINGXIAOFANGFAGUISHANGWUMINGWENGUIDINGDEBEIJINGXIA,RUHECAIYONGHELIDEFANGPAIYANCUOSHIYIBIMIANHEJIANSHAODAKONGJIANJIANZHUHUOZAISHIDERENYUANSHANGWANG、BAOZHENGRENYUANANQUANSHUSAN,JIUXIANDEYOUWEIZHONGYAO。

  一、建筑火災煙氣的特點

  HUOZAIDEFASHENGHEFAZHANJUYOUSUIJIXINGHEQUEDINGXINGDESHUANGZHONGTEDIAN。SUIJIXINGSHIZHIHUOZAIFASHENGDEQIHUOYUANYINJISHIJIAN、DIDIANDENGYINSUSHIBUDINGDE,SHOUDAOGEZHONGYINSUDEYINGXIANG,ZUNXUNYIDINGDETONGJIGUILV;QUEDINGXINGSHIZHIZAIMOUYITEDINGCHANGHEXIAFASHENGDEHUOZAIHUIANJIBENQUEDINGDEGUILVFAZHANMANYAN,RANSHAOGUOCHENGYUYANQILIUDONGGUOCHENGJIEZUNXUNRANSHAOXUE、LIUTILIXUEDENGWULIHEHUAXUEGUILV。HUOZAIDEQUEDINGXINGGUILVKECAIYONGGONGCHENGKEXUEDEFANGFAYANJIU,YIBANSHINEIHUOZAIDEZIRANFAZHANGUOCHENGDATIFENCHENGSANGEZHUYAOJIEDUAN,JI:CHUQIZENGCHANGJIEDUAN、CHONGFENFAZHANJIEDUANJISHUAIJIANJIEDUAN。

  ZAIHUOZAIFAZHANDECHUQIZENGCHANGJIEDUAN,SUIZHUFANGCHURELIANGXUNSUZENGDUO,ZAIKERANWUSHANGFANGXINGCHENGWENDUJIAOGAO、BUDUANSHANGSHENGDEHUOYULIU。DANGYULIUSHOUDAOFANGJIANDINGPENGDEZUDANGHOU,BIANZAIDINGPENGXIAFANGXIANGSIMIANKUOSANKAILAI,XINGCHENGLEYANDINGPENGBIAOMIANPINGXINGLIUDONGDEJIAOBODEREYANQICENG,DADAOLEYIDINGHOUDUSHIYOUHUIMANMANXIANGSHINEIZHONGBUKUOZHAN,BUJIUJIUHUIZAIDINGPENGXIAFANGXINGCHENGZHUJIANZENGHOUDEREYANQICENG。DANGHUOZAIDADAOCHONGFENFAZHANJIEDUAN,REYANQICENGDEWENDUYUZHONGXINWENDUXIANGCHAWUJI。

  RUGUOSHINEIYOUTONGXIANGWAIBUDEKAIKOU(RUMENHECHUANG),ZEDANGYANQICENGDEHOUDUDIYUKAIKOUDESHANGYANGAODUSHI,YANQIBIANKEYOUCILIUDAOSHIWAI。KAIKOUBIANQIZHUXIANGWAIPAIYANDEZUOYONG。ZAIJIANZHUHUOZAIDEFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONG,YANQIDEPAIFANGXIANGDANGZHONGYAO,YANQIPAIFANGSULVDEDAXIAOJUEDINGZHUYANQICENGGAODUDEBIANHUAQINGKUANG。DANGPAIFANGSULVDAYUYANQIDECHANSHENGSULVSHI,YANQICENGDEGAODUHUIZHUJIANSHENGGAO,ZUIZHONGBAOCHIZAIDUIRENMEIYOUWEIXIEDEGAODU。

  二、鋼結構火災時的理化性能

  建筑用鋼(Q235、Q345鋼等)在全負荷的情況下失去靜態平衡穩定性的臨界溫度為540℃左右。鋼材的機械性能隨溫度的不同而有變化,當溫度升高時,鋼材的屈服強度,抗拉強度和彈性模量的總趨勢是降低的,但在150℃以下時變化不大。當溫度在250℃左右時,鋼材的抗拉強度反而有較大提高,但這時的相應伸長率較低、沖擊韌性變差,鋼材在此溫度范圍內破壞時常呈脆性破壞特征,稱為“藍脆”。如在“藍脆”溫度范圍內進行鋼材的機械加工,則易產生裂紋,故應力求避免。當溫度超過300℃時,鋼材的抗拉強度、屈服強度和彈性模量開始顯著下降,而伸長率開始顯著增大,鋼材產生徐變;當溫度超過400℃時,強度和彈性模量都急劇降低;到500℃左右,其強度下降到40%~50%,鋼材的力學性能,諸如屈服點、抗壓強度、彈性模量以及荷載能力等都迅速下降,低于建筑結構所要求的屈服強度。我國20世紀90年代初對裸露鋼梁的耐火極限進行了驗證,確認了I36b、I40b標準工字鋼梁的耐火極限分別為15min、16min(鋼梁內部達到臨界溫度:平均溫度538℃,最高溫度649℃)。因此,若用沒有防火保護的普通建筑用鋼作為建筑物承載的主體,一旦發生火災,則建筑物會迅速坍塌,對人民的生命和財產安全造成嚴重的損失。

  三、現行各類排煙方式比較

  ZAIJIANZHUFANGPAIYANGONGCHENGZHONG,CHANGYONGDESANZHONGFANGSHISHI:ZIRANPAIYAN、JIXIEJIAYASONGFENGFANGYANHEJIXIEPAIYAN。ZIRANPAIYANHEJIXIEPAIYANSHIKONGZHIYANQIXIAJIANGDECHANGYONGFANGFA,YUJIXIEPAIYANXIANGBIZIRANPAIYANYOUQIZISHENDEYOUDIAN。YISHIWUDADEDONGLISHEBEI,YUNXINGWEIXIUFEIYONGYESHAO,QIEPINGSHIKEJIANZUOHUANQIYONG;ERSHIZAIDINGPENGKAISHEPAIYANKOU,ZIRANPAIYANXIAOGUOHAO。DUIYUZIRANPAIYANDEYINGYONG,ZAIGUOWAIYEYOUXUDUOCAIYONGZIRANPAIYANDELIZI,ZAIDEGUO,DAKONGJIANDEGONGGONGJIANZHUDUOSHIYONGZIRANPAIYANYOUQISHIDANCENGDEZHANLANJIANZHU。WOGUOXIANJIEDUANDUIJIANZHUFANGPAIYANFANGSHIXUANZEDEQINGXIANGXINGYIJIANSHI:FANSHINENGLIYONGWAICHUANGDENGSHIXIANZIRANPAIYANDEBUWEIYINGJINKENENGDICAIYONGZIRANPAIYANFANGSHI。TEBIESHIDAKONGJIANJIANZHUYISHOUXIANKAOLVSHEZHIZIRANPAIYAN,LIYOURUXIA:

  1)DAKONGJIANJIANZHUZHONGDEGAODAKONGJIANJUYOUJIAOQIANGDEXUYANGONGNENG;

  2)DAKONGJIANJIANZHUTONGCHANGDINGPENGHUOCEQIANGSHEZHIDAMIANJICAIGUANGHUOTONGFENGDAI,KEYUZIRANPAIYANJIEHESHIYONG;

  3)JIXIEPAIYANLIANGFEICHANGDA,GEISHEJIHESHIGONGDAILAIHENDANANDU;

  4)YOUYUNEIBUKONGJIANDEGAODA、KUANCHANG,JIXIEPAIYANKENENGYINQIYANQIYUKONGQIDECHANHUN,GUOYUJIZHONGDEJIXIETONGFENGPAIYANBADALIANGGANGGANGBURUDEXINXIANKONGQIZHIJIEPAIFANGCHUQU,XINGCHENGSUOWEIDE“LIUTONGDUANLU。

  四、自然排煙的設計要求

  目前,防排煙設計方法基本有三種:

  (1)TIJIHUANQICISHUFA;

  (2)JIYUSHULIMOXINGJISUANGONGSHISHEJIFANGFA;

  (3)JIEZHUJISUANJIMONIRUANJIANFENXIPINGGUSHEJIFANGFAJIXINGNENGHUASHEJIFANGFA。

  DANWULUNCAIYONGNAZHONGFANGFA,DOUYAOMANZUYIXIAYAOQIU:YISHIYANQICENGGAODU。HUOZAIZHONGDEYANQICENGBANYOUYIDINGRELIANG、JIAOZHI、DUXINGFENJIEWUDENG,SHIYINGXIANGRENYUANSHUSANXINGDONGYUJIUYUANXINGDONGDEZHUYAOZHANGAI。ZAISHEJISHIXIANNEI,YANQICENGZUIHAONENGBAOCHIZAIRENQUNTOUBUSHANGFANGYIDINGGAODUCHU,SHIDERENZAISHUSANSHIBUBICONGYANQIZHONGCHUANGUO,YEBUHUISHOUDAOREYANQILIUDEFUSHEREWEIXIE。PUBIANRENWEIYANQICENGZAIRENYUANSHUSANGUOCHENGZHONGBAOCHIZAIJUDIMIAN2mYISHANGDEWEIZHISHI,RENYUANSHUSANSHIANQUANDE。ERSHIREFUSHE。GENJURENTIDUIFUSHERENAISHOUNENGLIDEYANJIU,RENTIDUIYANQICENGDENGHUOZAIHUANJINGDEFUSHEREDENAISHOUJIXIANSHI2.5kW/㎡,SHANGBUWENDUYUEWEI185DU,CHUYUZHEGECHENGDUDEFUSHEREJIMIAOZHONGZHINEIJIUHUIYINQIPIFUQIANGLIETENGTONG。SANSHIJIEGOUANQUAN。JIANZHUYONGGANGZAIQUANFUHEDEQINGKUANGXIASHIQUJINGTAIPINGHENGWENDINGXINGDELINJIEWENDUWEI540℃ZUOYOU。GANGCAIDEJIXIEXINGNENGSUIWENDUDEBUTONGERYOUBIANHUA,DANGWENDUSHENGGAOSHI,GANGCAIDEQUFUQIANGDU、KANGLAQIANGDUHEDANXINGMOLIANGDEZONGQUSHISHIJIANGDIDE,DANZAI150℃YIXIASHIBIANHUABUDA。

  五、結論

  1、GANGJIEGOUCHANGFANG、KUFANGYIJIMINYONGJIANZHUNAIHUOXINGNENGCHA,HUOZAISHIRONGYIDAOTA,ZAOCHENGDALIANGRENYUANSHANGWANGHECAICHANSUNSHI,SHEZHIPAIYANXITONGNENGYOUXIAOPAICHUJIANZHUNEIDEGAOWENYANQI,YOULIYURENYUANSHUSAN、HUOZAIPUJIUHEJIANZHUJIEGOUANQUAN。

  2、DAXINGGANGJIEGOUCHANGFANG、KUFANGYIJIMINYONGJIANZHUDUOWEIDANCENG,ZAIDINGBUJIEHECAIGUANG、TONGFENGSHEZHIZIRANPAIYANCHUANGSHIGONGJIANDANKEXING。

  3、MUQIANGUONEISHENGCHANDEYIRONGZIRANPAIYANCHUANGXINGSHIDUOYANG,WANQUANKEYIMANZUGANGJIEGOUJIANZHUSHIGONGYAOQIU。

  4、ZIRANPAIYANTOURUBUDA,BUXUZHUANYEWEIHUBAOYANG,PAIYANXIAOGUOLIANGHAO,ZHIDEPUJITUIGUANG。

 

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